Generate Title Heading on : What is SSD pruning? ⋆ News from Somag without quotes

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Have you ever noticed that when you go into Windows to optimize your devices it says retrim for SSD? What exactly is cut and why is it necessary? Is it the same as defragmenting or something completely different? (this is different).

All such good questions deserve detailed answers, so in this article we will cover all of them.

What is SSD pruning?

SSD Shrinking is a process that helps maintain SSD performance over time. Pruning works by periodically deleting blocks of data that are no longer in use. Cropped data is not always deleted immediately, as a complex process decides exactly when this will happen. But when this happens, it not only frees up disk space, but also helps the SSD run better and longer.

Simple, right? But what’s actually going on is a bit more complicated – read on to find out!

Poking around inside your SSD

To understand why SSDs don’t delete files when you click a button, we need to take a quick look at how they work. We’ve taken SSDs apart before, and you’ll see that there isn’t that much inside.

The example below refers to a relatively old one SATA model (Samsung 850 Pro), but even the latest SSDs don’t differ much in terms of the components that make up the drive.

The chip in the middle is the processor that manages all the instructions, data flow, encryption and other algorithms. Above it is a small amount of DRAM that acts as an instruction and data cache and also stores a table of data locations on disk.

To the right and below the processor there are two NAND flash memory modules – these are the chips in which all the data is stored, and it is in them that we need to understand.

Deep within these chips are billions of tiny components called floating-gate and floating-gate semiconductor field-effect transistors. Since this name does not roll off the tongue, this technology is commonly called charge-trapped flash (CTF) and is the most commonly used data storage system in modern solid-state devices.

Each CTF acts as a separate storage unit, known as a memory or bit cell, to which three electrical tracks are connected. CTFs are grouped together, first as a long column (row) containing 32 to 128 cells.

Cells in a row have a common trace (bit string) that is used to read the data stored in them. All those on the same line (known as a page) are connected to another common track (string of words). The line and base selection strings are used in conjunction with the word strings to determine whether the read, write, or erase process is taking place.

An array of lines and pages forms what is called a block. Page and block sizes vary greatly, with the former as small as 4 KB and the latter as large as 512 KB, although much depends on the manufacturer and model.

one NAND a flash memory die will consist of thousands of blocks, and the flash memory modules themselves may contain several dies. These huge, complex networks of tracks and transistors make up every flash memory device, from multi-dollar USB drives to enterprise-class multi-terabyte solid-state drives.

NAND flash memory is weird

The pages and blocks are important because all the memory cells in this structure have the same substrate — a piece of semiconductor material, such as silicon or gallium arsenide, on which all the transistors are built.

To erase data from any cell, it is necessary to apply a high negative voltage, which causes all the electrons stored in the KTP to flow into the substrate. Unfortunately, this means that the erasure process clears every cell in the block, not just one of them.

Another quirk of NAND flash memory is that the memory cells cannot be programmed with new data until all the cells are cleared. In other words, hard drives never write new data directly over the old, as traditional hard drives do. And when erasing needs to be done at the block level, writing to them is done at the page level, which means that SSD programming is much faster than erasing.

The programming and erasing process also damages the memory cells each time, wearing away the layer inside the transistor that stores the charge. To increase the life of the chips, the processor running them cycles through all the blocks until each one is used once before going back to the beginning (so to speak).

So yes NAND flash memory is definitely weird – writes fast, deletes slow, crashes when doing any operation!

To litter

Now let’s get back to understanding what SSD pruning is. To do this, take an imaginary SSD with 4 KB pages and 256 KB blocks, that is, 64 pages per block. What happens if you want to delete a single file that takes up 3056 KB on your SSD?

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This file will occupy 764 pages — 11 full blocks and one with 60 of the 64 pages used. How can we delete this file without risking affecting the last 4 pages as they may contain data for another file? Looks like we’re totally stuck!

Salvation initially comes in the form of TRIM command. All data remains on the device until explicitly instructed to do something about it. Files and folders that have been deleted by the operating system are marked as unnecessary, and when the TRIM command is executed, the table is stored in SSD DRAM (or in the NAND flash memory itself, if there is no DRAM on the disk). ) is then updated to reflect this.

Note that not all SSD manufacturers use the term TRIM, but Windows does, so we’ll stick with that term. Data is not erased immediately after sending the TRIM command—this happens either when the drive is idle or when it writes some data to the block next time. Which method to use depends on the manufacturer: consumer-level models handle wipe on standby, while enterprise-level models usually do this on write.

Data marked for deletion is deleted when NAND the flash firmware starts a process called garbage collection. This involves reading a block and all pages that need to be saved are copied to the cache and then written to a completely empty block. Then the previous page, along with the pages marked for deletion, are deleted.

In some ways, this process for SSD drives is the same as disk defragmentation for traditional hard drives, but it’s not the same.

Is clipping the same as defragmenting?

Trimming and defragmenting an SSD are not the same thing. Defragmentation is a process used to optimize the performance of hard disk drives (HDDs) by rearranging the data on the disk so that it is stored continuously. This increases the efficiency of the device by reducing the time it takes to read and write data.

On the other hand, pruning is specific to SSDs and is used to maintain the performance of the drive over time. The use of solid-state flash drives means that they have a limited number of write cycles. When data is deleted from an SSD, the space it occupies is not immediately available for reuse. Instead, the disk firmware marks the space as “invalid” and does not overwrite it until the shrinking process is complete. This process helps prevent disk fragmentation and slowdown.

Garbage collection has a beneficial effect on SSD life and overall performance, and TRIM simply improves it (sometimes these two terms are used interchangeably). This is because without this command, the garbage collector will just constantly move all pages, compacting partially filled blocks to keep newly deleted blocks available for programming, but this means that unwanted pages will also be moved, resulting in a loss of time and increased wear and tear. memory cells. Because TRIM explicitly states which pages are now junk, they can be left untouched during garbage collection and deleted as needed.

Sending the Clippers

TRIM is automatically issued by Windows when you permanently delete a file (ie delete it from the Recycle Bin), but it doesn’t happen instantly. It is added to the queue and processed when the SSD is ready for it.

However, this queue has a maximum size, and if it is full, some of these TRIM requests will be deleted. By default, Windows plans to re-execute TRIM commands regularly (referring to it as retrimming).

You can make this happen, but we don’t recommend that you do. But if you insist, go to File Explorer, right-click the device, select Properties, and then go to the Tools tab. Finally, click on the button labeled “Optimize”. If there are no hard drives on your computer, optimization simply starts the usual disk defragmentation, but for NAND flash drives, repeatedly pressing this button brings up the TRIM command. You can’t actually force the drive to do anything, so don’t worry about running it too often.; the drive will be fine!

However, this queue has a maximum size, and if it is full, some of these TRIM requests will be deleted. By default, Windows plans to re-execute TRIM commands regularly (referring to it as retrimming).

You can make this happen, but we don’t recommend that you do. But if you insist, go to File Explorer, right-click the drive, select Properties, and then go to the Tools tab. Finally, click on the button labeled “Optimize”. If there are no hard drives on your computer, optimization simply starts the usual disk defragmentation, but for NAND flash drives, repeatedly pressing this button brings up the TRIM command. You can’t actually force the drive to do anything, so don’t worry about running it too often.; the drive will be fine!

Now you know what TRIM is and how it benefits your SSD.

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Have you ever noticed that when you go into Windows to optimize your devices it says retrim for SSD? What exactly is cut and why is it necessary? Is it the same as defragmenting or something completely different? (this is different).

All such good questions deserve detailed answers, so in this article we will cover all of them.

What is SSD pruning?

SSD Shrinking is a process that helps maintain SSD performance over time. Pruning works by periodically deleting blocks of data that are no longer in use. Cropped data is not always deleted immediately, as a complex process decides exactly when this will happen. But when this happens, it not only frees up disk space, but also helps the SSD run better and longer.

Simple, right? But what’s actually going on is a bit more complicated – read on to find out!

Poking around inside your SSD

To understand why SSDs don’t delete files when you click a button, we need to take a quick look at how they work. We’ve taken SSDs apart before, and you’ll see that there isn’t that much inside.

The example below refers to a relatively old one SATA model (Samsung 850 Pro), but even the latest SSDs don’t differ much in terms of the components that make up the drive.

The chip in the middle is the processor that manages all the instructions, data flow, encryption and other algorithms. Above it is a small amount of DRAM that acts as an instruction and data cache and also stores a table of data locations on disk.

To the right and below the processor there are two NAND flash memory modules – these are the chips in which all the data is stored, and it is in them that we need to understand.

Deep within these chips are billions of tiny components called floating-gate and floating-gate semiconductor field-effect transistors. Since this name does not roll off the tongue, this technology is commonly called charge-trapped flash (CTF) and is the most commonly used data storage system in modern solid-state devices.

Each CTF acts as a separate storage unit, known as a memory or bit cell, to which three electrical tracks are connected. CTFs are grouped together, first as a long column (row) containing 32 to 128 cells.

Cells in a row have a common trace (bit string) that is used to read the data stored in them. All those on the same line (known as a page) are connected to another common track (string of words). The line and base selection strings are used in conjunction with the word strings to determine whether the read, write, or erase process is taking place.

An array of lines and pages forms what is called a block. Page and block sizes vary greatly, with the former as small as 4 KB and the latter as large as 512 KB, although much depends on the manufacturer and model.

one NAND a flash memory die will consist of thousands of blocks, and the flash memory modules themselves may contain several dies. These huge, complex networks of tracks and transistors make up every flash memory device, from multi-dollar USB drives to enterprise-class multi-terabyte solid-state drives.

NAND flash memory is weird

The pages and blocks are important because all the memory cells in this structure have the same substrate — a piece of semiconductor material, such as silicon or gallium arsenide, on which all the transistors are built.

To erase data from any cell, it is necessary to apply a high negative voltage, which causes all the electrons stored in the KTP to flow into the substrate. Unfortunately, this means that the erasure process clears every cell in the block, not just one of them.

Another quirk of NAND flash memory is that the memory cells cannot be programmed with new data until all the cells are cleared. In other words, hard drives never write new data directly over the old, as traditional hard drives do. And when erasing needs to be done at the block level, writing to them is done at the page level, which means that SSD programming is much faster than erasing.

The programming and erasing process also damages the memory cells each time, wearing away the layer inside the transistor that stores the charge. To increase the life of the chips, the processor running them cycles through all the blocks until each one is used once before going back to the beginning (so to speak).

So yes NAND flash memory is definitely weird – writes fast, deletes slow, crashes when doing any operation!

To litter

Now let’s get back to understanding what SSD pruning is. To do this, take an imaginary SSD with 4 KB pages and 256 KB blocks, that is, 64 pages per block. What happens if you want to delete a single file that takes up 3056 KB on your SSD?

This file will occupy 764 pages — 11 full blocks and one with 60 of the 64 pages used. How can we delete this file without risking affecting the last 4 pages as they may contain data for another file? Looks like we’re totally stuck!

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Salvation initially comes in the form of TRIM command. All data remains on the device until explicitly instructed to do something about it. Files and folders that have been deleted by the operating system are marked as unnecessary, and when the TRIM command is executed, the table is stored in SSD DRAM (or in the NAND flash memory itself, if there is no DRAM on the disk). ) is then updated to reflect this.

Note that not all SSD manufacturers use the term TRIM, but Windows does, so we’ll stick with that term. Data is not erased immediately after sending the TRIM command—this happens either when the drive is idle or when it writes some data to the block next time. Which method to use depends on the manufacturer: consumer-level models handle wipe on standby, while enterprise-level models usually do this on write.

Data marked for deletion is deleted when NAND the flash firmware starts a process called garbage collection. This involves reading a block and all pages that need to be saved are copied to the cache and then written to a completely empty block. Then the previous page, along with the pages marked for deletion, are deleted.

In some ways, this process for SSD drives is the same as disk defragmentation for traditional hard drives, but it’s not the same.

Is clipping the same as defragmenting?

Trimming and defragmenting an SSD are not the same thing. Defragmentation is a process used to optimize the performance of hard disk drives (HDDs) by rearranging the data on the disk so that it is stored continuously. This increases the efficiency of the device by reducing the time it takes to read and write data.

On the other hand, pruning is specific to SSDs and is used to maintain the performance of the drive over time. The use of solid-state flash drives means that they have a limited number of write cycles. When data is deleted from an SSD, the space it occupies is not immediately available for reuse. Instead, the disk firmware marks the space as “invalid” and does not overwrite it until the shrinking process is complete. This process helps prevent disk fragmentation and slowdown.

Garbage collection has a beneficial effect on SSD life and overall performance, and TRIM simply improves it (sometimes these two terms are used interchangeably). This is because without this command, the garbage collector will just constantly move all pages, compacting partially filled blocks to keep newly deleted blocks available for programming, but this means that unwanted pages will also be moved, resulting in a loss of time and increased wear and tear. memory cells. Because TRIM explicitly states which pages are now junk, they can be left untouched during garbage collection and deleted as needed.

Sending the Clippers

TRIM is automatically issued by Windows when you permanently delete a file (ie delete it from the Recycle Bin), but it doesn’t happen instantly. It is added to the queue and processed when the SSD is ready for it.

However, this queue has a maximum size, and if it is full, some of these TRIM requests will be deleted. By default, Windows plans to re-execute TRIM commands regularly (referring to it as retrimming).

You can make this happen, but we don’t recommend that you do. But if you insist, go to File Explorer, right-click the device, select Properties, and then go to the Tools tab. Finally, click on the button labeled “Optimize”. If there are no hard drives on your computer, optimization simply starts the usual disk defragmentation, but for NAND flash drives, repeatedly pressing this button brings up the TRIM command. You can’t actually force the drive to do anything, so don’t worry about running it too often.; the drive will be fine!

However, this queue has a maximum size, and if it is full, some of these TRIM requests will be deleted. By default, Windows plans to re-execute TRIM commands regularly (referring to it as retrimming).

You can make this happen, but we don’t recommend that you do. But if you insist, go to File Explorer, right-click the drive, select Properties, and then go to the Tools tab. Finally, click on the button labeled “Optimize”. If there are no hard drives on your computer, optimization simply starts the usual disk defragmentation, but for NAND flash drives, repeatedly pressing this button brings up the TRIM command. You can’t actually force the drive to do anything, so don’t worry about running it too often.; the drive will be fine!

Now you know what TRIM is and how it benefits your SSD.